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Hyperreality, fake news and the lost power of linking

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Painting of Trump - fake news

Ever since the election of Donald Trump, fake news has been in the ‘real’ news.

Detractors claim Facebook negligently allowed baseless attacks, masquerading as real news, to damage Hillary Clinton’s reputation and seal victory for her rival. A senior writer at the Washington Post even argues that Facebook should employ an editor to stop the fake news virus spreading any further.

A journalist calling for more journalism appears self-serving; it also ignores the practical and ethical questions that flow from employing editors at Facebook. How, for example, would a journalist act as the moral arbiter for hundreds of millions of users exchanging billions of separate pieces of information mostly for reasons that have absolutely nothing to do with current affairs?

Facebook users have different political and religious persuasions, languages and cultures. Even ostensibly similar users have competing world views that are hard to define or even understand. So how would employing editors to judge their output not end up threatening free speech? And how do you determine what is fake and what is not, anyway?

Trumping fake news

A list of fake news sites produced to help students stay aware of distorting ‘news’ is illuminating, but not as you might expect. Reportedly the work of a media lecturer, the list included the well-established, much-respected British news magazine, Private Eye because it’s satirical. Satire often manufactures ridiculous stories to highlight stupidity or hypocrisy. That doesn’t mean it should be lumped in with fake news sites. It does, though, demonstrate how blurred the boundaries are. Indeed, one self-confessed fake news author claimed in an interview that his sole reason for cranking out hundreds of fictitious memes was to highlight ‘alt-right’ supremacists’ use of false information.

Fake news is not one-sided, either. Following Trump’s election victory in early November, one piece of fakery appeared in my own news feed repeatedly. It reported Trump telling People Magazine in 1998 that if he ever sought the presidential nomination it would be with the Republicans, because their supporters were gullible and easy to manipulate.

Picture and text reporting Trump: If I were to run, Id run as a Republican. They're the dumbest group of voters

Thousands of people exchanged the meme without questioning its authenticity, no doubt because it matched their impression of Trump. In fact, it’s a delicious (or perhaps unpalatable) irony that it was precisely because people thought Trump was preying on the gullible that they believed a fake news story about him.

Confirming bias

In this sense, fake news stories are confirmation-bias memes. They work because they tell us something we already believe in – and we are all, therefore, vulnerable to them. That leads to an uncomfortable – if obvious – conclusion about fake news: it’s not that different from real news – and not just because it looks like real news. Firstly, fake news and real news can help to support or propagate a particular world view: The Daily Mail, Fox News, The Guardian, even The New York Times, have determined editorial perspectives that are there to support their readers’ view of the world. Yep, there’s a difference: these news providers mostly report on ‘facts’, i.e. things that verifiably happened, rather than stuff that’s just made up. But the lens they apply to these facts is one designed to a serve a world-view, nonetheless.

Secondly, both real and fake news expect us to trust that what they are saying is real. In a news meme, whether the news is real or not, it’s often disconnected from the sources that establish its veracity in the first place. Indeed, news inherently has this problem anyway, even when it’s presented on news sites or newspapers or on news TV channels, let alone when it’s on social media. It is, after all the point of news. You read or hear that something has happened to be informed; you don’t then expect to have to go and make sure that it did actually happen.

Jean Baudrillard: Simulacra and fake news

Jean Baudrillard was a French philosopher and cultural theorist. In Simulacra and Simulation,  published in 1981, Baudrillard explores a phenomenon he calls hyperreality. This is the idea that in a world where everything is experienced through media, our impression of ‘reality’ is in fact completely removed from the actual real. Instead what represents truth isn’t truth at all, because it is so disconnected from any empirical thing in the first place. At first that idea seems ridiculous – not least because it’s so disturbing: One of the most popular references to Baudrillard’s idea is the film The Matrix (where a copy of Simulacra and Simulation is used as a prop). In the film, the world that appears real soon turns out to be a simulation. A character quotes the book, calling it ‘the desert of the real’.

Despite its disturbing qualities – and whether you accept Baudrillard’s claim that the real isn’t real at all – it’s easy to accept his observation. In a mediated world, in which everything is represented or reproduced rather than actually experienced, it won’t take long for notions of veracity to become questionable. Indeed, questioning reality is now an actual ‘thing’ in itself.

Baudrillard developed his theories for Simulacra and Simulation in the 1970s and 1980s, before the Internet dominated news reporting and the media. Nonetheless, it makes his argument that much easier to support. Now, with a bit of tweaking, we can use an off-the-shelf WordPress theme to make a website look, ostensibly, as authentically newsy as the New York Times.

Beyond this, Twitter and Facebook offer ready-made templates for news production and dissemination that make it laughably easy to pretend to be real news producers. In the case of Facebook the platform is reported to be engineered to favour self-referencing: Uploading a video to the platform appears to elicit more engagement than linking to it on YouTube, owned by Facebook’s rival, Google.

Fighting fake news

If news was on shaky ground already, the internet then is helping to reduce that ground to sand. What the hell can we do?

Firstly, journalists need to work harder. Journalism, after all, purports to report significant, real events to audiences who aren’t there to witness them. Given that there is always going to be a gap between real experiences and an audience’s experience, it’s vital that journalists work to address that gap. Otherwise, the dislocation of reports from the facts on which they are based can be exploited to create fakery. Worse still – and more alarmingly – it also makes it much easier for people to pretend that real news is a lie when it’s not – particularly if it doesn’t suit how they feel or think. That, I think, is a bigger potential problem than the fake news itself.

The most obvious tool at an online journalist’s disposal to deal with this is the link: linking to reports, linking to source material, linking to the people in the report. But that shouldn’t be the end of it, either. Journalists need to find other ways to take people directly to where they found out the facts. I’d venture that also means adopting exacting standards of transparency in how reporting is carried out. And backing it up constantly. Indeed, linking is part of the approach used by Wikipedia to help establish ‘truth’ – and now suggested by some for Facebook.

Secondly, the Internet we’re creating increasingly looks like a trap for anyone who isn’t equipped to determine what’s ‘real’ and what’s not. If we allow companies and individuals to develop self-referring ‘realities’ that don’t rely on any objective truth, then all sorts of scary worlds can and will develop. The internet was designed with linking in mind – in fact the world-wide web was proposed as a linking system for scientists. But somehow that hasn’t prevented the web turning into a place where referencing is viewed as a self-serving process rather than one of common interest. That matters because it’s where we are ‘living’ our lives: it’s where our views are shaped and experiences defined. In other words, getting this new world sorted is a big, serious problem. And that isn’t for journalists to solve, love them as I do – or even for Facebook. It’s a dirty-great, society-wide humdinger of a thing. A problem that belongs to us all.

Brighton

Mapping deprivation in Brighton (a first, faltering attempt)

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For a few reasons I decided to keep out of the way at CityCamp Brighton. But I was still keen to try to do something with a bit of my time.

Paul Colbran and the folk at Brighton and Hove released some data around postcodes and deprivation at the beginning of the conference, so I thought I’d have a look at it and see if I could get anything useful from it. The data is presented on this page, here. It’s a biggish spreadsheet, with a lot of fields that take a bit of getting used to!

I’m no expert with data, but I imported it into Google Refine – which allows you to call APIs and augment the fields with other information. I added some Lat Long coordinates – so that I could have a look at mapping the most deprived areas.

What this revealed was that there are quite a few ‘dead’ postcodes – those being, essentially, dead locations that the API can’t help you to locate. While there are Eastings and Northings, for a novice these are harder to work with – and because they are not a universally recognised system (albeit very accurate) they are not as easy to automatically map. On Saturday night I manually inputed data for the first set, but I wimped out on the Sunday and simply left the locations out.

As it happens the vast majority, I think, are located close to the areas that are revealed in the map, below. I chose to work with the 10 per cent most deprived wards, based on the assessment of deprivation made in 2007 – the ‘index of multiple deprivation 2007 overall LSOA score’. There’s an explanation of what this is here, but essentially it’s a combination of seven different aspects of deprivation – including (according to Wikipedia) ‘deprivation, employment deprivation, health deprivation and disability, education skills and training deprivation’.

Because there is some data missing – and because of the hit-and-miss nature of this kind of first stab at using the data – my map SHOULD be taken with a pinch of salt. There are, for example, a couple of fishy-looking results (deprivation on a golf course?). SO THIS IS NOT SCIENCE!!. Nonetheless, as an exercise it has been useful in proving that, with relatively little preparation, it’s possible to begin to interrogate the data and understand more about the city – and its needs.

A map presented by Anthony Zacharzewski in his introduction to CityCamp Brighton suggested that there is much deprivation intermingling with more affluent areas – I think these are called ‘pockets’ in the trade. These don’t really show up in the data that I’ve used. This might be because deprivation can be measured in a variety of ways, but it may also be because there are different degrees of deprivation. The postcode data that I looked at distinguishes, by way of illustration, between ‘the 10 per cent most deprived’ and the 20 and 30 per cent most deprived. Since I went for the most narrow definition, it is almost certainly the case that a broader range would elicit a more complex picture of where deprivation in the city is located.

There are a few things that I think come out of this:-

1). There’s a need to revise and work on cleaning up the data – particularly the postcodes – which would certainly help the council.

2). There’s an opportunity for the city itself (i.e. not just the council) to work together to explore what deprivation means, where it is and how it can be tackled that good (not the use of a very lazy positive adjective) data can help to provide.

3). There are some important questions that need to be asked about need – particularly in the location of resources and services – that mapping of deprivation is particularly useful at helping to reveal. While the council may have been considered, traditionally, to be best-placed to do this, I think it makes sense that if we start to broaden who is able to explore and consider this kind of information, we will be more likely to come up with better ideas on how to go about dealing with these problems.

4). I feel there’s a responsibility on those who push for open data to start using it as soon as it appears – even if it is only to decide that it can’t be used and to feed that information back to government. It’s only by working on the data – demonstrating that it’s useful or that it’s not – that we can help those who want to help us in winning the argument that this stuff really matters.

Better get back to Google Refine!